Automobiles are an important mode of transportation as they offer flexibility and mobility which is not available through any other means. They are used for passenger and goods transportation. Automobiles also play a vital role in our society and have contributed greatly to the development of cities, paved highways, townships, and communities. They have also created a wide range of new industries. Automobiles are an integral part of human life, as they help in carrying out daily tasks and also facilitate in exploring various places.
The main components of an automobile are the chassis, engine, transmission system, and car body. The chassis is the skeleton of the vehicle which supports all the moving parts. The engine is the heart of the vehicle as it provides power to the wheels. The engine is the internal combustion type which uses petrol (gasoline) or diesel as fuel. It has fixed cylinders which move pistons and the motion is converted into energy by burning the fuel. This motion is transmitted to the axles through a system of gears in the powertrain and then to the wheels.
The transmission system consists of the clutch, fluid coupling, and gears. The clutch connects the driven shaft with the driving shaft and disengages it when the speed of the driven shaft is greater than the speed of the drive shaft. The fluid coupling transmits the torque of the engine to the driven shaft. Gears adjust the transmission ratio between speed and torque of the engine for proper functioning.